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Ear,Nose,Throat Diseases

An ear, nose and throat specialist (ENT) is a physician who is trained in the medical and surgical treatment of the ears, nose throat, and other related structures of the neck and head. They hold expertise in managing diseases of the ears, nose and nasal passage sinuses, larynx, oral cavity and the pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face.

The Ear
An Ear Nose and Throats doctors most frequent visits are usually based on the ear.  Patients come in with complaints of hearing disorders, ear infections, loss of balance, cranial and facial nerve disorders. 
- Tinnitus
   - ImpactedE ar Wax
    - Serous Otitis
    - Inflammation of the external ear canal
    - Acute Otitis
    - Hearing loss

The Nose
Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of the ENT specialist. Management of disorders of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, allergies, sense of smell, and nasal respiration (breathing), as well as the external appearance of the nose are part of an. ENT's area of expertise.

    - Smell Disorders
    - Rhinolight
    - Rhinoplasty - Rhinoplasty
    - Sinusitis (acute, chronic)

The Throat
Also specific to the ENT specialty is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aerodigestive tract or esophagus including disorders of the voice respiration (breathing), and swallowing.

   - Sleep apnea
   - Pharyngitis
   - Tonsil Surgery
   - Snoring
   - tonsillitis

The Head and Neck
In the head and neck region, an ENT specialist treats infectious diseases, tumors ; benign and malignant, Facial deformities and trauma. They perform both plastic and reconstructive surgery.


There are 2 functions of the eardrum:

1- Hearing Function: to create vibrations of sound waves and transmit them to the middle ear ossicles.
2- Protection Function: The middle ear is to protect against bacteria and other factors from the external ear. The eardrum is a hole or tear holes in the membrane.
Infectious Causes
A spontaneous rupture of the eardrum may occur with middle ear infection. In this case it is followed by a bloody discharge from the inflamed ear canal entrance. With proper treatment, most of the time with the proper treatment it will close on its own. Untreated fluid accumulation in the middle will cause collapse in the long term and can lead to puncture of the eardrum.

Traumatic Causes

• Hard blow taken to the ear
• Certain types of skull fractures
• Encounter with a sudden explosion
• Hot fluid enterig the ear canal
• Trauma caused by pressure
•  Extreme use of cotton swabs or foreign object in the ear
• Extended duration of eartubes

How a Perforated Eardrum Effects Hearing?

Generally as the hole increases in size; hearing loss also increases.  Skull fractures in the small bones of the inner ear that transmit hearing in conjucntion with eachother where the middle ear can also be damaged and the loss of hearing can be very severe. 

If perforation occurs as a result of a sudden shock or explosion, complaints of tinnitus can be added to the hearing loss complaint.  In this case the patient will gradually regain their hearing and the ringing of the ears too will subside in a few days.  Continued perforation will lead to severe hearing loss. 

Treatment of Perforated Eardrum

Before starting the treatment of the perforation, a hearing test should be performed. In the meanwhile patient should prevent any water from entering the ear to reduce the loss of hearing.  ENT specialists will keep a watch on the perforation for some time to decide whether or not it will heal on its own.  In most cases they do.  In the case that it does not shrink, under a microscope the ENT will apply a special chemical solution and cover it with a piece of paper. 

With the closure of the eardrum noticeable improvements occur in the hearing of the patient.  In order to reach this state, the patching procedure may need be performed up to 4 times.  If and when positive results are not attained after the 4th patching process, surgery may be planned by the physician. 

There are many methods but they all have basic principles.  Their main objective is to repair the perforation using the patients own tissue to correct the damage.   

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Kozyatagi 34742 ISTANBUL/TURKEY

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